Metabolic Biomarkers for ME/CFS: A New Test?

Robert Naviaux et al. have published new evidence of metabolite abnormalities somewhat specific to ME/CFS, indicating that we may soon have a - to date, lacking, and much needed - diagnostic biomarker for the disease vs. the laborious existing objective diagnostic: VO2 max repeat exercise tests

Consistent with my own integrative pathophysiological research/guidance, their data suggest that the condition centres on a common (maladaptive) systemic response to trauma (of varying kinds), rather than differential presentation of an illness stemming from a particular stressor

The aberration profile itself is said to resemble hibernation activity, arguably tantamount to organismic survival behaviour i.e. autonomic responses to systemic physiological threats such as malnutrition, dehydration, and hypoxia. Again, this conception is consistent with my review of the contemporary literature

Related article: The Economist

UK Plastic Bag Levy

This is a subject close to my heart as someone who cares a great deal about the environment, and has studied the economics of the environment and centred his undergraduate Economics degree dissertation on the topic of Green Behaviour and Behavioural Change'

My sense is that whilst the policy may initially strike many Englishmen as being somewhat of a paternalistic nuisance, and the levy may seem relatively insignificant in pecuniary terms, this policy is the right move; the effect has been generally positive in terms of normative and behavioural change in the rest of the UK - where levies have already been introduced (e.g. 72% reduction in plastic bag usage in Wales in the past 4 years) thanks, presumably, to both direct (financial disincentive) and indirect (market signalling, nudge) effects

What I would like to see is the levy imposed across the spectrum (not just to larger retailers) and increased (from 5p to perhaps 10p/20p), and at least a proportion of it go to environmental causes e.g. green behaviour change initiatives in particular. I would also like to see action taken Europe-wide, and in TROTW - in time, as the problem of plastic pollution e.g. of the oceans, is of course - like so many of the environmental challenges we face today - a global one